A growing debate is addressing the question of how should industrial capacity in Europe be rebuilt after the 2008 crisis in order to avoid the risks of divergence across countries and regions. The challenge of developing new technologies and industries and the crucial role that could be played by state action at the national level and by new initiatives by the EU are receiving now growing attention. ISIgrowth researchers Giovanni Dosi (with Nobel prize winner Joseph Stiglitz, Mariana Mazzucato and Mario Pianta have engaged other scholars in a debate published in spring 2015 by the journal Intereconomics. Review of European Economic Policy. Their contributions anticipate some of the policy arguments that are developed in the ISIgrowth project. A more in-depth analys by Mario Pianta has been taken up by Progressive Economy.